Linear imperfections

a) Closed orbit distortion (steering error): Beam orbit stability importance, Imperfections leading to closed orbit distortion, dispersion and chromatic orbit, Effect of single and multiple dipole kicks, Closed orbit correction methods

 

b) Optics function distortion and gradient error: Imperfections leading to optics distortion, Tune-shift and beta distortion due to gradient errors, Gradient error correction

 

c) Coupling error: Coupling errors and their effect, Coupling correction

 

d) Chromaticity